General information: around 700 taxons
Area: 2.5 ha
The collection of the flora of Poland gathers and presents plants naturally occurring in Poland. In it you can admire not only common plants, but also those which are difficult or even impossible to encounter in nature. Native plants protected under the Regulation of the Minister of Environment of 9 October 2014 on the species protection of plants form the basis of the collection.
The collection contains:
- plant species under strict legal protection: 164, representing more than 50% of the total 296 listed in the regulation;
- partially protected species: 61 out of 128 included in the regulation (48%).
The collection also includes 238 species that are considered rare, threatened, endangered or extinct in Poland. The endangered status of a given species is determined on the basis of national and regional red lists and red books published since 1992.
Due to different habitat requirements, plants in the collection are presented on several sites with different light, soil and water conditions.
COLLECTION OF POLISH FLORA
The exposition of forest plants (Photo 1) is located on the bed along the avenue leading from the forest gate, above the ponds and in the eastern part of the Garden bordering Wczasowa Street, and is called the ‘forest corner’. It includes deciduous, coniferous and mixed forest species from the lowlands of Poland as well as those connected with mountain regions. About one hundred species are part of the collection, and include wolfsbane (Daphne mezereum); the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis); the spring snowdrop (Leucojum vernum); the two-leaved onion (Scilla bifolia) (Photo 2), an early spring geophyte under partial species protection; the Leipzig anemone (Anemone ×lipsiensis), a natural hybrid of the wood anemone and the yellow anemone; Primula elatior; the spring pea (Lathyrus vernus), a spring perennial plant pollinated by bumblebees; the fern (Polypodium vulgare); mountain arnica (Arnica montana); common marsh marigold (Asarum europaeum) (Photo 3), an evergreen perennial with inconspicuous maroon-green flowers hidden under the leaves; the Eastern Carpathian pea (Lathyrus laevigatus) (Photo 4) with unique orange flowers blooming in May; and the golden lily (Lilium martagon), whose flowers that appear in early June resemble a Turkish turban.
The exposition of photophilous plants (Photo 5) is situated on a south-facing slope at the end of the oak avenue leading from the forest gate and is the oldest part of the collection, created in 1983-1984. This part of the collection is called the ‘didactic flowerbed’ or the ‘sunny flowerbed’. Here we can become acquainted with xerothermic flora, connected with sunny slopes and calcareous subsoil, which occurrs in Poland naturally, e.g. in the Nida Basin, the Lublin Upland or the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland. Selected species of plants growing in thermophilous thickets, in low flowery grasslands, stipa grasses and sand grasslands are presented in this part. Representative plants of this type include black crowfoot (Veratrum nigrum); the purple gromwell (Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum) (Photo 6), which grows in only one locality in Poland; the gas plant (Dictamnus albus) (Photo 7), a critically endangered species; the snowdrop anemone (Anemone sylvestris); the leafless iris (Iris aphylla) (Photo 8), a species under strict protection and so rare in the wild that it has been recognised as threatened with extinction; as well as the European Michealmas-daisy (Aster amellus), Ranunculus illyricus or the perennial pea (Lathyrus latifolius).
Coastal species have been collected in close vicinity of the exposition of light-loving plants, and include (Photo 9): sand sedge (Carex arenaria); lyme grass (Leymus arenarius); the beach pea (Lathyrus japonicus subsp. maritimus) (Photo 10) or yellow alyssum (Alyssum alyssoides), an insectivorous and self-pollinating annual plant found on inland dunes. Inland saltmarshes are represented by sea milkweed (Glaux maritima) (Photo 11); sea plantain (Plantago maritima) and buck’s-horn plantain (Plantago coronopus) (Photo 12).
The exposition of plants from the Beskids and the Sudety Mountains as well as from the highlands and the foothills (Photo 13) is located in the western part of the ‘educational flowerbed’. Here, we can see very rare plants which often grow in nature in inaccessible places: the Saxifraga sponhemica (Photo 14), which occurrs in Poland in only one site on Rogowa Kopa in the Stołowe Mountains; the tiger lily (Lilium bulbiferum) (Photo 15); and the carnation (Dianthus collinus) (Photo 16), a species extinct in Poland.
The exposition of endangered and rare field weed species is presented near the ‘sun bed’ by the stream. Its main objective is to show endangered and vanishing species accompanying crops. These are mostly archeophytes, i.e. species that arrived on Polish territories before the 15th century from around the Mediterranean and the Middle East.
The exhibition currently features around 20 species. Among them are critically endangered taxa listed in the Polish Red Book of Plants: Comarche (Scandix pecten-veneris), yellow-flowered woodruff (Ajuga chamaepitys) (Photo 17), Common bollwort (Misopates orontium), and bent-hornbeam quixa (Kickxia spuria) (Photo 18).
The exposition of wetland plants can be seen at the edge of the gorge near Villa Janówek. Here, special attention should be paid to Cochlearia polonica (Photo 19), a biennial plant endemic to Poland which reproduces mainly generatively. Nowadays we can only see this plant in botanical gardens or transplanted to other localities. Next to it grows the Siberian iris (Iris sibirica), one of the four naturally occurring iris species in Poland; the royal fern (Osmunda regalis), a majestic fern with leaves divided into a distinctively looking fertile part and an upper fertile part, threatened with extinction in Poland; common horsetail (Equisetum variegatum), and blue pollinium (Polemonium caeruleum) (Photo 20), a glacial relict, i.e. a remnant from the ice-age in the Polish flora.
Plants of the Polish Carpathians, especially species occurring in the Tatra, Pieniny and Bieszczady Mountains, are grown in the Mountain Plant Collection. The plants of the Tatra Mountains are divided into two groups: those growing mainly on granite substrate (lime-free) and those preferring substrate rich in calcium carbonate. The flora of the Pieniny is represented by species of meadow habitats and rock grasslands, while the representatives of the Bieszczady range are plants of the undergrowth of the lower alder forests and mountain pastures.
The exposition of plants of the Tatras is situated on two of the highest points, at the foot of which in early spring we can find Crocus scepusiensis (Photo 21). This species has been under strict protection since 1946 and partial protection since 2014; one of the few creepers in the Polish flora, the Alpine clematis (Clematis alpina), legally protected since 1919, climbs on the dwarf pine. In the exposition we can admire, among others, the eightpetal mountain-aven (Dryas octopetala) (Photo 22), a glacial relic in the Polish flora; edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum) (Photo 23), legally protected since 1919 but almost completely extirpated in the Tatra Mountains in the 1930s; and, on the rocks near the cascade, the charming carnation (Dianthus nitidus) (Photo 24).
The exposition of plant species naturally occurring in the Pieniny region is located on two neighbouring lower elevations closest to the mountain lodge. Here grow, among others, the hart’s-tongue fern (Phyllitis scolopendrium); Dendranthema zawadzkii (Photo 25); spirea (Spiraea media); the star gentian (Gentiana cruciata), one of eight gentian species growing in the country; and the basket of gold (Alyssum saxatile) (Photo 26).
The exposition of plants representing the flora of the Bieszczady (Photo 27) is situated on a gentle slope at an eastern exposure. The grassy slope is planted with many species associated exclusively with the Eastern Carpathians, of which the Polish Bieszczady Mountains are a part. The Carthusian rock carnation (Dianthus cartusianorum subsp. saxigenus) (Photo 28) is an endemic subspecies found only on rocks in the highest parts in the Krzemień, Kopa Bukowska and Bukowy Bród groups, and is threatened with extinction. Other plant species found on the rocks of the Bieszczady include: Silene dubia, Carex dacica, and Euphorbia austriaca. Apart from the abovementioned species, other plant species connected with mountain meadows are also worth mentioning: Trollius altissimus, Centaurea mollis, and Tanacetum corymbosum subsp. clusii.